- Fenni Shidhika and Helvi Ileka, 7 November 2018
A Namibian cabinet directive of 2007 on Solar Water Heaters (SWH) requires SWH to be installed in all government financed and subsidised buildings such as those of the National Housing Enterprise (NHE). The NHE authorised the Southern African Solar Thermal Training and Demonstration Initiative (SOLTRAIN) II project to contract Trinity Business Solutions to install 62 SWHs in newly constructed houses under the NHE in Namibia starting from December 2015 until March 2016, and the Namibia Energy Institute (NEI) through the SOLTRAIN project, Ministry of Mines and Energy and NHE, financed the installation of 62 SWHs at low-cost houses in Otjomuise, Windhoek.2018-11-07 09:04:36
NEI, together with the AEE-Institute for Sustainable Technologies, installed monitoring equipment at four of the houses with domestic solar water heaters (DSWH) with electrical back up elements, and two monitoring systems on houses with normal domestic electric water heating (DEWH) systems.
The measuring, monitoring and data acquisition equipment functioned to collect and store data about system performance in order to verify and demonstrate the efficiency and cost savings of SWH compared to conventional electric geysers. Parameters analysed included the proportion of thermal energy generated by solar (the solar fraction), the energy from the electrical back-up element, the energy required to heat the water, the total mains electricity consumption, the volume of hot water per person per day and thermal heat losses.
A long-term comparison of benefits and disadvantages between DSWH and DEWH systems is useful in informing policy makers and to guide the NHE in the implementation of the cabinet directive.
From the graph below, a number of observations warrant attention:
- The electricity consumed in the two houses with DEWH is much higher compared to the houses with DSWH.
- The average solar yield per month is between 58 - 63 kWh/m2.
- House 2’s SWH system is under-designed, resulting in the need for an additional 86 kWh to heat up the water with an electrical backup element, representing 37 % of total energy consumption.
- The hot water demand is between 26 - 40 litres per person per day.
- The heat losses in DSWH are much higher when compared with those in the DEWH systems. This is due to the water in the storage tanks reaching higher temperatures during sunlight hours when compared with DEWH, resulting in a higher temperature difference compared to the ambient temperature of the tank’s surrounds. These losses could easily be reduced in future systems by better insulation of the tanks.
It was also observed that for some months, house 1 and 4 used 100 % solar to heat their water and the back-up element was only switched on in winter when solar energy was limited. Furthermore, the demand for hot water varies with seasons, and the behaviour of the occupants affects the operation of the SWH with the yearly solar fraction ranging between 60 - 96%, while the yearly solar yield ranges from 700 - 760 kWh/m2.
House 3 and House 5 were selected to do a detailed comparison of the two systems due to the fact that these houses both had 5 occupants. The results indicated that a house with a DSWH can save between 50 - 96% of the energy required for heating water on an annual basis, while a house with DEWH uses 37% of their total electricity consumption for heating water.
The savings realised by houses with DSWH equate to between N$1 500 and N$3 000 per year. This results in a payback period of 7 years assuming an initial investment of N$25 000, an inflation rate of 6% and an annual maintenance cost of 1% of the initial investment.
This could be reduced to 5 years with a subsidy from MME. Assuming that good quality DSWHs have a service lifetime of 15 to 20 years, the results look promising in demonstrating the long term techno-economic benefits of DSWHs when compared with DEWHs.Dr Karen Surridge, 7 November 2018
From 2014 to 2016, SANEDI, as a government partner, was invited to speak about renewable energy and energy efficiency at national level at the Department of Defence (DoD) Annual Environmental Seminar.2018-11-07 08:53:45
Through this relationship, SANEDI was subsequently invited to speak at a provincial environmental forum to contribute towards improving energy usage and assist in advising towards compliance with the DODs environmental and energy strategy at military installations in Limpopo region.
SANEDI representatives have to date attended several exploratory trips to military installations at different scales throughout Limpopo Province in order to assess energy needs and to be able to provide preliminary informed advice on plausible, sustainable renewable energy and energy efficiency interventions. SANEDI now has a formal agreement to act as an implementing arm for DoD on identified collaborative projects that will address energy needs.
An initial project will entail the construction and operationalization of two 1 500 litre Solar Water Heating (SWH) systems at a pre-selected military base in Limpopo province. Since DoD is already constantly undertaking installation, maintenance and repair of water heating infrastructure at its units, this project aims to support and build capacity in this space for the DoD and its members. This can be achieved by implementing an energy efficient, renewable energy hardware system that supports human capacity development (HCD) as well as contributing towards reduced energy costs and reliable water heating energy security.
These developments have a great deal of overlap with the Austrian-funded bi-lateral project called the Solar Thermal Training & Demonstration Initiative (SOLTRAIN) which aims to tackle similar needs and create opportunities through addressing the SWH sector across six partner countries in the Southern African Development Community (SADC), namely, Botswana, Lesotho, Mozambique, Namibia,
SOLTRAIN visits Regional Works Unit (RWU) Limpopo in connection with potential collaboration and training/skills development support.
Left to right: Cpt. (now Maj.) Shivhishi ; Mr Werner Weiss (Director AEE ITEC); Col. Benedict Manzini (Officer Commanding RWU Limpopo); Lt. Col. Hennie Davel (Chief Environmental Officer RWU Limpopo); Dr. Karen Surridge (RECORD Centre Manager, SANEDI)
South Africa, and Zimbabwe. All these partner countries are pursuing policies that enhance security of supply, energy conservation and increase energy access. Furthermore, in all partner countries there are national plans and policies on the support to increase the use of solar thermal systems in place.
Starting in 2009, SOLTRAIN aims to support the national solar thermal plans and is currently in its third 3-year-long phase, through the initiative, parties are able to apply (through the appointed contractor) to the SOLTRAIN programme for financial support towards SWH systems and artisan training (elaborated in a subsequent project agreement). SANEDI, supported by the Centre for Renewable and Sustainable Energy Studies (CRSES) at University of Stellenbosch, is the national implementing partner for the SOLTRAIN programme in South Africa.
In this regard, RECORD (Renewable Energy Centre Of Research and Development) at SANEDI, has been hard at work procuring a SWH system for the DoD, the first of several collaborative projects taking place between SANEDI and the DoD after the signing of a 5-year Memorandum of Agreement on 16 July 2018. The project is expected to be partially supported through SOLTRAIN funding and will be implemented by SANEDI, thus cementing the interaction of SANEDI, the DoD and SOLTRAIN in the upcoming fourth phase commencing in July 2019.
This SWH installation will provide hot water to two accommodation bungalows that are used to accommodate military members, approximately half of which are female, performing medical tasks. Furthermore, four DoD members will be trained to maintain this system and will shadow the contractor during installation and maintenance.
In a similar vein, RECORD has delivered a number of training sessions on renewable energy, energy efficiency and SWH system understanding and awareness at several military units, in order to prepare members for the upcoming projects.
Furthermore, SANEDI and RECORD, under the banner of SOLTRAIN, are conducting half-day awareness sessions including the basics of renewable energy and energy efficiency with a focus on how SWH works, and how it can make a difference at varying scales.
This includes an experiment conducted from a worksheet designed originally for School Science clubs known as the Science Spazas. In the experiment, members of the South African National Defence Force get to test the hypothesis behind why heating water with the sun really works. In fact, at the most recent session, after only three and a half hours in the sun, the test water had reached a whopping 660 Celsius! There is nothing like a touch and feel exercise to prove science.Mr Angelo Buckley, 7 November 2018
A study entitled “Investigation into the Costs of Large-Scale Solar Thermal Systems in SADC Countries”, authored by Mr Angelo Buckley and co-authored by Ms Karin Kritzinger and Prof Sampson Mamphweli from the Centre for Renewable and Sustainable Energy Studies (CRSES), Stellenbosch University, was submitted and presented at the Southern African Solar Energy Conference (SASEC) 2018 which was held in Durban, South Africa in late June.2018-11-07 08:50:22
The goal of the study was to investigate the variation of the specific costs in EURO/m2 installed of both thermosyphon and pumped type solar thermal systems in the partnering SADC countries of the Southern African Solar Thermal Training and Demonstration Initiative (SOLTRAIN). These countries include South Africa, Lesotho, Botswana, Namibia, Zimbabwe and Mozambique.
The cost data of SOLTRAIN co-funding applications from 2010 to mid-2017 was made available by AEE-Intec to conduct the study. This included co-funding applications from SOLTRAIN phase 1, phase 2 and midway through phase 3. This data accounted for 92 solar thermal projects, which amounts to a total of 294 solar thermal systems which applied for co-funding from the six SADC partnering countries.
The study highlighted the following:
- The average specific cost of pumped solar thermal systems ranged from approximately 470 to 1 000 EURO/m2 across five of the six countries, with Lesotho exhibiting the highest costs.
- The average specific cost of thermosyphon systems ranged from approximately 500 to 700 EURO/m2 across four of the six countries, with South Africa presenting the highest costs.
- The average specific cost of pumped and thermosyphon systems was 745 EURO/m2 and 613 EURO/m2, respectively, over the period from 2010 to mid-2017.
The study shows that there is a large variation in specific cost of both pumped and thermosyphon installations in the SADC countries in relation to the gross collector area installed and that this variation is noticeably larger for pumped systems in relation to that of thermosyphon systems. The results of this study were limited to the availability of application data, which, it is hoped, will be built upon with the progression of the SOLTRAIN project.
The findings of this study aim at providing clearer approximation of the average specific costs for particular solar thermal technologies attributed to each of the SADC countries, and also to investigate the behaviour of cost trends through the growth of the technology’s deployment within the SADC region.SOLTRAIN Admin, 7 November 2018
The SOLTRAIN Bursary Programme aims to support the work of the SOLTRAIN project in SOLTRAIN partner countries, and to motivate students at universities to do their masters thesis in the field of solar energy.2018-11-07 08:45:27
The bursary supports travel costs to visit another institution in Southern Africa for further study or experimental work, equipment costs to conduct experiments to support research, and the running cost of experimental work or further studies.
You can read more on last year’s successful applicants here.
This year’s application form can be downloaded at this link. Please distribute it to your local networks and note that the closing date for applications is the 16 November 2018.Prof. E. Matlotse, 30 July 2018
Various stakeholders from different entities, led by the Department of Energy (DoE), converged on the Maruapula Secondary School to conduct a site visit of the school’s solar thermal installations which were 50% sponsored by the Solar Thermal Training and Development Initiative (SOLTRAIN).2018-07-30 15:35:44
Also in attendance was Ms. Helvi Ileka from the Namibia Energy Institute, SOLTRAIN’s Namibian country partner.
The installations at the school involved the refurbishing the existing solar heating system at the boys’ hostel and installling new solar thermal systems at the girls’ hostel.
The proceedings started with the principal of the school, Mr. A. Taylor giving a welcoming address. In his address, he thanked the Clean Energy Research Centre (CERC) and the SOLTRAIN project sponsors (Austrian Development Agency and OPEC) for their support.
CERC Director, Prof. E. Matlotse, outlined the SOLTRAIN project achievements to date and thanked the school and the SO SOLAR (Pty) Ltd for partnering in the project.
Ms. K. Giffard of SO SOLAR (Pty) Ltd, took the attendees through how they, as a company, executed the installations from start to finish. She emphasised that an important thing to note was that they had been beneficiaries of the SOLTRAIN training programme, and had thus become elligible to apply for SOLTRAIN funding to kickstart the project. They then approach the school after consulting its respective management and they were successful. Finally, they executed the installations. She also took time to thank the school management, CECR and the project sponsors.
After the speeches, attendees conducted a tour of the installations. Proceedings were closed by Mr. H. Ngwenya of Capricon Solar (Pty) Ltd. In his closing address, he thanked everyone who came to this important occasion and encouraged all stakeholders in the solar thermal technology space nationally to work towards realising the Botswana Solar Thermal Technology Roadmap (BSTTR). He added that even though it will be challenging, it is still achievable!Samson Mhlanga, 30 July 2018
The National University of Science and Technology, Zimbabwe’s SOLTRAIN country partner, exhibited and presented at the International Environmental Day’s commemoration held in late March at Milton Primary School, Bulawayo.2018-07-30 15:33:33
Other organisations present included the Ministry of Primary and Secondary Education represented by the Provincial Education Director - Bulawayo Province, Bulawayo City Council Parks, Alliance Française de Bulawayo, Environmental Management Agency, Forestry Commission, Zimbabwe Climate Change Coalition, Zimbabwe Water Authority, Meteorological Department, National Parks and Wildlife Department, Zimbabwe Tree Ambassador and various Primary and Secondary Schools.
The objective was to use a single day to commemorate a number of significant global environment events occurring in March, including Africa Environmental Day, World Wildlife Day, International Forest Day, World Water Day, World Meteorological Day and Earth Hour Day. The commemoration involved raising awareness of the different days and their importance through presentations, followed by Quiz Time for the students.
These sessions were then followed by a practical demonstration by Mr G Munhuwamambo and Eng A. Mnkandla of the Solar Thermal Technology which offered practical solutions to challenges common to all the environmental days.
The gathering was concluded with a symbolic tree-planting ceremony. The event was sponsored by Alliance Française de Bulawayo represented by their Director, Mr Durand-Massé. Mr J Zvaita (Programme Director of Zimbabwe Climate Change Coalition), Mrs S B Ncube (Deputy Provincial Education Director), Eng S Mhlanga (SOLTRAIN-NUST Representatives), Mr D. Ndlovu (EMA) and Mr S Dube (BCC) also presented at the event.Khothatso Mpheqeke and Karen Surridge, 30 July 20182018-07-30 15:27:28
The African Capital Cities Sustainability Forum is the premier Sustainability Week event for city leaders on the African continent and key challenges threatening growth and development in Africa are addressed, including issues such as rapid urbanisation, energy and water access and stresses, sanitation, the global economic slowdown, rising unemployment and social inequities, trade facilitation, connectivity, land and biodiversity degradation, amongst others, as well as the significant and growing impacts of climate change.
The conference and exhibition has a broad audience base with the exhibition not only visited by professional delegates within the sustainability space, but also by the public and students, and is thus an important means of spreading information to a wider audience.
Due to the profile of this event, SANEDI often fields requests from the media for interviews, and Dr Karen Surridge, SOLTRAIN programme lead for South Africa in Gauteng, was approached to do an interview about Sustainability as a broad concept.
She utilised the platform to speak about the SOLTRAIN programme and used solar water heating as an example of sustainable renewable energy-based technology.
The link for the interview is provided on the SOLTRAIN website and/or can be accessed here (https://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=6VfZP2U7MuE).Prof. E. Matlotse, 30 July 2018
The University of Botswana Clean Energy Research Centre (CERC) held the Southern African Solar Thermal Training and Demonstration Initiative (SOLTRAIN) project’s second dissemination training course at the end of May, 2018.2018-07-30 15:25:33
Ten individuals were trained, including four from the Department of Energy (DoE). Two of the DoE participants were permanent staff members and two were attached students from the Botswana International University of Science and Technology. Another two participants were technicians from the Maruapula Secondary School and, with an additional two individuals from Pumping Fuel company. The remaining two participants were private individuals.
In the opening address, Prof. E. Matlotse restated that this was the second of the five training courses which are planned for SOLTRAIN III
The first training course was held in the third quarter of 2017 in which 20 Ministry of Basic Education technicians coming from all the 9 national districts were trained. The next training course will be held in Maun.
Prof. E. Matlotse added that the project is intended to position the country to be able to implement the Botswana Solar Thermal Technology Roadmap (BSTTP) which is one of the key outputs of SOLTRAIN. In turn, the country would make gains in the reduction of greenhouse-gas emissions, thereby contributing to climate mitigation.
The second training course was three-days in duration, with participants being awarded certificates upon completion.
The training was administered by the UB team under the CERC and included the efforts of were Prof. E. Matlotse, Prof. A. Obok Opok, Mr. O. T. Masoso, Mr. O. Seretse and Mr. M. Lethapa.Malealea Lodge, 30 July 2018
In 2016, Bethel Business Community and Development Centre (BBCDC) installed five 150 litre solar water heaters as a pilot project at Malealea Lodge. After monitoring and evaluating the project for 6 months, a decision was taken by the lodge to install another five systems in 2017, again with BBCDC’S help.2018-07-30 15:23:28
Through monitoring, it was found that the geysers were effective for at least 300 days of the year, and during this time, produced a wholly adequate amount of hot water for the establishment’s guests.
During the rainy season, when a lot of overcast conditions occur, the output of the solar geysers needs to be carefully monitored. When the solar output is not sufficient, staff at the lodge switch back to the original gas geysers as a backup. The system was designed so that the change over is extremely simple.
The savings on gas has been significant due to the ample amount solar radiation the lodge receives for much of the year, and plans are afoot to install another 10 systems in the not too distant future.Khothatso Mpheqeke and Karen Surridge, 30 July 2018
The 18th annual African Utility Week hosted 6 411 attendees over 3 days from 84 countries and 300 exhibitors from 30 different countries. The South African National Energy Development Institute (SANEDI) was one of the exhibitors for the 2018 African Utility week showcasing various projects implemented through SANEDI, including the SOLTRAIN programme.2018-07-30 15:21:57
The African Utility week is an international conference hosted annually, providing the largest gathering of energy and water professionals focused on all aspects of provision of energy services to the African market, where attendees can source solutions, generate business and connect with new and existing energy markets. SANEDI participates at this conference annually, through speaking and/or exhibiting.
This year, various stakeholders approached the SANEDI exhibition stand, many of whom were aware of the SOLTRAIN programme and had benefited from it since the first phase through training, knowledge sharing and networking and system installations. SOLTRAIN promotional material was widely distributed and the project received great interest.Tawanda Mushiri and Samson Mhlanga, 30 July 20182018-07-30 14:55:44
Energy is essential to economic growth and poverty reduction in Zimbabwe and the national drive to eradicate poverty and achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) requires skilled professionals to manage and implement energy development projects. While basic knowledge is imparted in the undergraduate program, there is need for specialization to successfully implement renewable energy projects.
The serious energy security challenges being faced by the country point to increased demand for renewable energy experts, preferably at postgraduate level, who would service all sectors related to demand and supply of energy in Zimbabwe.
The academic programme was suspended by the University in 2012 due to dwindling numbers of lecturers and supervisors who were qualified to offer MSc programmes. Recently however, the Department of Mechanical Engineering engaged partners in the region and beyond, to provide qualified complementary personnel as a short-term measure to allow the programme to run while staff development efforts are intensified to support the training of academics in order to attain PhD qualifications in the renewable energy field.
The partners include:
- Africa EU Renewable Energy Co-operation Programme (RECP).
- European Union Energy Initiative
- University of Dar es Salaam
- Technical University of Munich (TUM)
- Makerere University
The purpose of the MSc is to provide high quality postgraduate education in the field of renewable energy so that participants develop proficiency in renewable energy project design, implementation, operation and maintenance, as well as in crucial phases of policy generation. There is also scope for focussed research on renewable energy-related topics.
The re-launched masters degree builds on the Mechanical Engineering Department’s other efforts towards the achievement of the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals, in particular, its participation in the Solar Thermal Training and Development Initiative (SOLTRAIN). Through the initiative, the department will be able to capitalise on the programme’s regional knowledge network, as well as have the use of the SOLTRAIN solar thermal demonstration trailer as well as access to various solar thermal demonstration sites. This will contribute immensely to solar thermal-related learning and research.
The Permanent Secretary of Ministry of Energy and Power Development was the guest of Honour where more than 120 participants attended the launch earlier this year.SOLTRAIN Lesotho, 30 July 2018
In order to create income and ensure future sustainability, the Bethal Business and Community Development Centre (BBCDC), with funding and support from SOLTRAIN, has established a solar thermal company in Mohale’s Hoek and has extended its existing workshop.2018-07-30 14:53:05
The workshop is equipped with the necessary tools for the local assembly of solar thermal systems and the welding of stands.
After a diligent procurement exercise, Adendorff Machinery Mart in Bloemfontein was selected as the preferred supplier of the tools and equipment needed for the new venture due to its wide range of stock and proximity to BBCDC.Prof. E. Matlotse, 30 July 2018
The Botswana Solar Thermal Technology Platform (BSTTP) Meeting, held at the end of May, aimed to pave way for the implementation of the Botswana Solar Thermal Technology Roadmap (BSTTR) which was formulated through the SOLTRAIN project. For this meeting, various stakeholders from different establishments, led by the Department of Energy (DoE), convened to deliberate on how best to achieve the huge tasks which lie ahead as part of the roadmap.2018-07-30 14:43:33
The proceedings started with the Clean Energy Research Centre (CERC) Director who is also the Chairman of the Botswana Solar Thermal Technology Platform (BSTTP), Prof. E. Matlotse, giving a welcome address to participants. He emphasised that the implementation of the BSTTR is a huge task which needs stakeholders to all work together towards achieving it.
He also urged DoE to play an active and leading role to ensure that the government offers the required support, without which the roadmap will not succeed.
The CERC Director then went on to recap the SOLTRAIN project milestones so far, giving more detail about the formulation of the BSTTR and its implementation plan. He emphasised that the formulation process was a rigorous consultative process which involved stakeholders from beginning to end.
He also emphasised the level of international and regional cooperation, in particular, the SOLTRAIN Conference in Namibia last year and the conference in Gaborone earlier this year. In both of these conferences, SOLTRAIN partner representatives from Botswana, Lesotho, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa and Zimbabwe presented their respective country roadmaps which allowed for a sharing of ideas and experiences, and the opportunity to fine tune the countries’ respective roadmaps.
Prof. A. Obok Opok was also on hand to present the BSTTR to the participants, resulting in some robust engagement on how best to implement the roadmap. The following was agreed with respect to the roadmap implementation:
Fenni Shidhika, Helvi Ileka and Zivayi Chiguvare, 30 July 2018
- Clean Energy Research Centre (CERC) is to coordinate the entire process encompassing implementation, monitoring and control.
- In two weeks following the meeting, the CERC Director was to constitute a National Task Force drawn from the key stakeholders which would be responsible for implementation, monitoring and control of the BSTTR.
- After constituting the National Task Force, the, CERC Director would inform the BSTTP.
- The NTF would then start work by drawing up the terms of reference and scope of work.
The Namibia Energy Institute presented recent Southern African Solar Thermal Training and Demonstration Initiative (SOLTRAIN) activities and promoted solar thermal energy at the International Conference on Solar Power Systems for Namibia (SPSN18) organized by the University of Namibia (UNAM), earlier this year.2018-07-30 14:34:10
The international conference took place in mid May at the Greta Conference Centre, just outside of Windhoek.
It was attended by more than 100 participants, 90 % of whom were science school teachers from various regions in the country. The remainder of the participants were academic staff, both lecturers and senior students, from local and international universities, private industry representatives and some government officials.
The main objectives of the conference were to:
- Create awareness, share and gain the latest knowledge and development trends on solar energy systems
- Discuss the implementation of cost recovery systems
- Educate high school teachers on the use of solar energy systems for economic and social development, and
- Design, construct and test simple solar thermal systems.
- The conference emphasised the role that solar lighting and simple solar thermal systems can play in providing access to basic energy services.
Other important topics included energy access and development of communities, environmental impact of energy extraction, transport and usage, as well as regional energy usage in Africa as a whole, SADC and Namibia, in relation to global energy usage.
The impact of energy access on health, education, and societal well-being was also discussed, along with various other options for its provision.
Staff from the Namibia Energy Institute (NEI), which is the Namibian implementation partner for the SOLTRAIN, demonstrated various types of solar cooker, including solar box cookers, the parabolic cooker and the solar bakery.
Ms. Helvi Ileka presented NEI activities including key outputs from the SOLTRAIN Project such as the Solar Thermal Roadmap, the Center of Competence activities and the results from the monitoring systems.
The Honorable Minister of Mines and Energy, Tom Alweendo, attended the last day of the conference and gave his words of encouragement towards energy access for all in the country. He emphasized the value of cooperation between all the various energy stakeholders including government, the private sector and academia, and encouraged them to work together in order to overcome access challenges.
The Minister, school teachers and all participants at the conference, were impressed with how the solar cookers cooked delicious meals and the effectiveness of the solar bakery, with the school teachers showing interest in knowing more about the design and manufacture of the solar cookers and bakery in order for them to introduce the concepts to their students. Lecturers from UNAM also indicated their interest in introducing the solar bakery concept at UNAM for student research for those studying towards a Master’s of Science in Renewable Energy.
Participants at the conference had the opportunity to taste the delicious chicken wings and potatoes cooked from solar cookers, as well as bread baked from the solar bakery.
Below are some pictures of the participants attended the conference and NEI staff explaining the solar cookers and the solar bakery to the participants and to the Honorable Minister of Mines and Energy, Tom Alweendo.Werner Weiss and Monika Spörk-Dür, 7 May 2018
The installation of solar thermal demonstration projects is an important part of the SOLTRAIN programme’s activities. On the one hand, the installations allow the SOLTRAIN community to apply knowledge gained during the training courses, and on the other hand, to show and demonstrate different solar thermal applications from small-scale systems for single family houses to large-scale systems in industrial applications.2018-05-07 14:28:39
The systems also serve as best-practice examples in order to facilitate broader market uptake.A cumulative 221 solar thermal systems with a combined collector area of 2,393 m² had been installed by end of December 2017 in the six SOLTRAIN partner countries.
638 tons of avoided CO2 emissions
The annual solar yield of all solar thermal systems is 1,834 MWh. This corresponds to electricity savings of 2,017 MWh/a and 638 tons of avoided CO21*), and the figures for the individual countries can be seen in the table below.
The avoided electricity cost corresponds to ZAR 4.3 million based on city of Cape Town tariff in 2015 of 213.90 c/kWh including VAT.
At COP21 (United Nations Climate Change Conference), which took place in December 2015 in Paris it was agreed to respond to the global climate change threat by keeping a global temperature rise this century well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels, and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase even further to 1.5 degrees Celsius. This can be reached by switching from a mainly fossil fuel-based economy to an energy supply system based on renewables, and the figures outlined above demonstrate the contribution of SOLTRAIN to the COP21 Agreements.
Table: Annual solar yield and corresponding electricity savings as well as avoided CO2 emissions of all solar thermal systems by end of December 2017, which were funded by ADA and OFID and installed in phase I - III of the SOLTRAIN project.
based on oil equivalent 1*)